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April 23rd marks the 38th anniversary of ZX Spectrum. This is a day of excitement for many software engineers, retro-gamers, and computer enthusiasts out there. The ZX Spectrum was the first personal computer accessible to many around the world. The ZX Spectrum played a significant role in the technological revolution, video game development, and the future of personal computers.
A brief history of the ZX Spectrum
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was one of the most popular home computers in British history. The iconic Sinclair ZX Spectrum was an 8-bit personal computer first released in The United Kingdom in 1982. It was manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Sinclair Research Ltd. It sold over five million units in its 1980s heyday.
Thousands of games were released for the Spectrum during its lifetime. The Text Adventure game was to emerge as one of the most significant genres of the system. The ZX Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from 16KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum+3 with 128KB RAM and a built-in floppy disk drive in 1987.
Together, they sold over five million units worldwide. The ZX Spectrum was one of the first mainstream manufactured computers in The United Kingdom, similar to its counterpart, the Commodore 64 in The United States. The ZX Spectrum has been credited as the machine which launched The United Kingdom's Information Technology (IT) industry since companies started to produce software and hardware specific for it.
The ZX Spectrum was incredibly popular in The United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, instantly standing out due to its rubber keyboard, its use of peripherals such as a joystick interface, microdrive, and a printer, as well as cassette tape recorders to load programs and games.
The ZX Spectrum was basically a black box with a rubber keyboard. Each key was responsible for up to six functions, and the whole keyboard was covered in coded, arcane writing. The computer was fondly nicknamed Speccy. It was affordable and advertised claiming to be half the price of its nearest competitor and more powerful. It was one of the first personal computers to deliver color graphics and was capable of 256 x 192 pixel resolution when it was plugged into a television.
The Speccy used audio cassette tapes for loading and saving programs and data. Users had to be very careful to adjust the volume in order to get a program or game to load properly. The ZX Spectrum was able to assemble a library of 23,000 software titles, including popular games such as The Hobbit, Elite, Daley Thompson's Decathlon, Manic Miner, Jet Set Willy, among others equally popular.
The ZX Spectrum quickly became a symbol of British technological progress and introduced home computers to the masses. The ZX Spectrum was the third computer manufactured by Sinclair Research after the ZX80 and the ZX81.
“The ZX Spectrum computer --being the first one to disseminate as a home computer in Europe -- sparked the phenomenon of the bedroom coders in the eighties. Many teenagers soon realized they could be paid to do what they enjoyed most: Video games. Many of them moved on into careers in the IT industry,” told me João Diogo Ramos in an interview.
"I was one of those bedroom coders in the sense that I started programming on the ZX Spectrum, and I became a computer science guy because of it. A few years later, I even coded some programs for local companies and associations that I was involved with. I was not a coder of games --I never created any famous game or anything like that," Ramos continued. Today, João Diogo Ramos is the Co-Founder and CEO of a technology company called Retmarker, which focuses on AI software for blindness prevention.
After the original ZX Spectrum, other models followed including the ZX Spectrum+ (1984) and the ZX Spectrum 128. From there, Amstrad bought the Sinclair computer line and launched the +2, +2A, +2B and +3 models which where even more focused in gaming by incorporating an internal cassette tape recorder or floppy drive.
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was officially discontinued in 1992. However, one of the most loved home computers of all time remains active and alive thanks to enthusiasts, collectors, and historians around the world. The ZX Spectrum will never die, and so, we celebrate its birthday every year.
Sir Clive Sinclair: The mind, heart, and soul behind the ZX Spectrum
Sir Clive Sinclair is an English entrepreneur and inventor globally known, loved, and recognized for his work in consumer electronics during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Sinclair has influenced generations and has gained special recognition and admiration by many electronic and software engineers as well as electronics enthusiasts, collectors, and historians of vintage electronics all over the world.
The ZX Spectrum earned Sir Clive Sinclair his knighthood for Services to the British Industry. His Knighthood was awarded by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's government in 1983, and was part of Queen Elizabeth II's 1983 Birthday Honors List for leading what was seen as a renaissance of the British industry.
Celebrating the ZX Spectrum: From Italy and Portugal, with love
Two of Sir Clive Sinclair's most notable admirers both of whom have paid a special tribute and homage to Sinclair's work, are Italian Enrico Tedeschi, and Portuguese João Diogo Ramos. Both Tedeschi and Ramos have contributed hours of personal and dedicated work to collect and share their passion and collections with thousands of others around the world.
Enrico Tedeschi was an Italian historian and collector of vintage electronics. He possessed 10,000 artifacts as part of his personal collection. Enrico Tedeschi wrote The Sinclair Archeology: The Complete Photo Guide to Collectable Models, a guide which became a collectable in itself. Enrico Tedeschiwas a great admirer of Sir Clive Sinclair and the Sinclair computers.
He organized the world's first dedicated public exhibition on Sinclair's work, which included many consumer electronics successes as well as the ill-fated C5 electric trike. Sir Clive Sinclair traveled from London to Hove to visit the exhibition in his honor with his two grandchildren, small children back then, six-year-old Henry Lloyd and nine-year-old Sam.
João Diogo Ramos is an entrepreneur, investor, speaker, and curator of the world's first dedicated museum to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum and everything related to it, the LOAD ZX Spectrum Museum in Cantanhede, Portugal.
"The reason I started collecting and the reason I've founded the LOAD ZX Museum was because I learned how to program on my own using a ZX Spectrum. I loved the excitement of creating something from scratch and the creativity associated with it. I knew from a very young age that my studies and career would be related to computer programming. A few years after the ZX Spectrum, I kept developing my own programs and, with another colleague, we reached the finals of a National Programming Competition in Portugal. But that was it, I was never a games developer but, who knows, I could still try," João Diogo Ramos told me in an interview while laughing.
The opening of the new phase of the LOAD ZX Spectrum Museum, in partnership with Cantanhede’s City Hall, was expected for May 2. However, due to the current pandemic, the opening had to be postponed for later this year, presumably around the beginning of the fall if the current situation allows for it.
The current one-year-old LOAD ZX Spectrum Exhibition functions as part of the Cantanhede's Municipal Museum. In the new phase, the exhibition will morph into a full autonomous museum in its own premises provided by Cantanhede's City Hall. The new premises are conveniently located in the city center, just 50 meters from the current exhibition's location.
The LOAD ZX Spectrum Museum comes this year as a special present to celebrate the 38th Anniversary of the beloved ZX Spectrum computer.
Happy Birthday, ZX Spectrum!
Sinclair ZX Spectrum books: There are so many ...
- The Story of the ZX Spectrum in Pixels (2014) by Chris Wilkins
Sinclair ZX Spectrum: A Visual Compendium (2015) by Andy Roberts
- A History of Vintage Electronics: Pye Telecommunications Cambridge